Edorium Journal of

Toxicology

 
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Original Article
 
Toxicity of Piper guineense berry to Clarias gariepinus
Frank N. I. Morah1, Albert P. Ekanem2, Victoria O. Edubio3
1Professor of Natural Products, Chemistry Department, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.
2Professor of Aquatic Pathology, Department of Fishery and aquaculture, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.
3Scholar, Chemistry Department, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Article ID: 100001T03FM2016
doi:10.5348/T03-2016-1-OA-1

Address correspondence to:
Frank N. I. Morah
Chemistry Department, University of Calabar
PMB 1115, Calabar, Cross River State
Nigeria

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How to cite this article
Morah FNI, Ekanem AP, Edubio VO. Toxicity of Piper guineense berry to Clarias gariepinus. Edorium J Toxicol 2016;1:1–4.


Abstract
Aims: To evaluate the ichthyotoxic effect of Piper guineense that has been recommended for control of exoparasites of fish.
Methods: Ten Clarias gariepinus finger lings were kept in each of the different aquaria containing different levels of aqueous extract of Piper guineense berry. The fishes were observed for a period of 96 hours. The behavior, external changes and mortality of the fishes were observed during the period.
Results: Introduction of the plant extract into the aquarium water resulted in death of the fishes and has an LC50 of 3.1 mgcm-3 after 96 h. These fishes showed erratic swimming motions, loss of reflex, vertical swimming and discoloration before dying.
Conclusion: Piper guineense berry is toxic to catfish. A therapeutic dose of this plant should be worked out in such a way that it will not exceed its safe level.

Keywords: Piper guineense, Clarias gariepinus, Ichthyotoxicity


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Author Contributions:
Frank N. I. Morah – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Albert P. Ekanem – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Victoria O. Edubio – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2016 Frank N. I. Morah et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



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